Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is a blockage of the main vein in the retina.
Blockage of the branches of the central vein of the retina is called branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO).
The blockage causes the walls of the vein to leak blood and excess fluid into the retina which leads to blurring of vision. When the leakage is in the central part of the retina, the vision loss is marked.
Common Symptoms of CRVO:
Marked loss of vision - due to haemorrhage in the vitreous fluid.
Partial loss of vision - in partial occlusion
Floaters are seen when there is a small amount of haemorrhage in the vitreous fluid. These are seen as tiny dark spots in the field of vision.
In severe cases of CRVO, the blocked vein may cause increased pressure in the eye, which may be painful.
45% of CRVO develop neovascular glauoma. This type of glaucoma is caused when abnormal blood vessels begin to grow
inside the eye, causing the pressure in the eye to rise. It is a serious condition that can cause pain and lead to severe vision loss.
Common Symptoms of BRVO:
Vision loss or blurring in part or all of one eye.
The vision loss or blurring is painless
May happen suddenly or become worse over several hours or days.
Uncontrolled Hypertension (high blood pressure) is commonly associated with BRVO.
Your eyes will be dilated to allow a thorough examination of the retina. Our retinal specialist may conduct the following examinations:
Visual acuity to determine how well you can read an eye chart
Tonometry to measure your eye pressure, Intra Ocular Pressure (IOP).
Fundus examination to check the retina and optic nerve
Slit-lamp Examination of the front part of the eye, including the eyelids, conjunctiva, sclera, cornea, iris, anterior chamber, lens, and also parts of the retina and optic nerve.
Fluorescein angiography to assess how many retinal blood vessels are closed.
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) to provide high-resolution images of the retina and determine the presence and severity of retinal conditions.
Treatment of Retinal Vein Occlusion
Because there is no cure for retinal vein occlusion, the main goal of treatment is to stabilize vision by sealing off leaking blood vessels.
Treatments may include
Injections of Avastin or Lucentis to help arrest the progression of the condition.
Focal laser treatment to reduce swelling of the macula.
Scatter (pan-retinal) laser treatment can be used to seal abnormal blood vessels, stopping them from growing in CRVO or neovascular glaucoma.
Ozurdex, a long- acting steroid, may also be used for the treatment of edema.